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Niobium

Katundu wa niobium

chiwerengero atomiki 41
CAS chiwerengero 7440-03-1
atomiki misa 92,91
limatsogolera mfundo 2 468 ° C
kuwira mfundo 4 900 ° C
buku atomiki 0,0180 nm 3
Osalimba pa 20 ° C 8.55g / cm³
kapangidwe Crystal thupi zokha kiyubiki
latisi zonse 0,3294 [nm]
Wochuluka mu matanthwe a Dziko Lapansi 20,0 [g / T]
Liwiro phokoso 3480 m / s (pa RT) (woonda ndodo)
matenthedwe kuwonjezeka 7.3 μm / (m · K) (pa 25 ° C)
matenthedwe madutsidwe 53.7W / (m · K)
magetsi resistivity 152 nΩ · mamita (pa 20 ° C)
Mohs kuuma 6,0
Vickers kuuma 870-1320Mpa
Brinell kuuma 1735-2450Mpa

Niobium, poyamba ankatchedwa columbium, ndi chinthu mankhwala chizindikiro Chidziwitso (poyamba CB) ndi atomiki nambala 41. Iwo yofewa, imvi, crystalline, ductile kusintha zitsulo, amapezeka mchere ndi pyrochlore ndi columbite, choncho dzina wakale " columbium ". Dzinali amachokera Agiriki, makamaka Niobe, amene anali mwana wa Tantalus, ndi Dzina la tantalum. dzina umalimbikitsa kufanana kwambiri pakati pa zinthu ziwiri katundu thupi ndi mankhwala, kuwapanga kovuta kusiyanitsa.

The English sayansi Charles Hatchett lipoti chinthu chatsopano ofanana tantalum mu 1801 ndipo dzina columbium. Mu 1809, Chingerezi sayansi William Hyde Wollaston anaganiza molakwika kuti tantalum ndi columbium anali ofanana. The German sayansi Heinrich Rose anatsimikiza 1846 kuti tantalum ores muli chinthu chachiwiri, amene adawatchanso dzina niobium. Mu 1864 ndi 1865, mndandanda wa asayansi Mukalongosola kuti niobium ndi columbium anali chinthu chomwecho (monga siyanitsa tantalum), ndipo kwa zaka maina onse ankagwiritsa ntchito mofanana. Niobium inali yololedwa nawonso dzina la amafotokozera mu 1949, koma dzina columbium amakhalabe ntchito ziliri pa zitsulo mu United States.

Niobium

Izo sizinali m'zaka za m'ma 20 kuti niobium anagwiritsidwa ntchito koyamba malonda. Brazil ndi sewerolo atongi wa niobium ndi ferroniobium, ndi aloyi wa 60-70% niobium ndi chitsulo. Niobium ntchito makamaka kasakaniza wazitsulo, mbali yaikulu mu zitsulo wapadera monga kuti ntchito mapaipi mpweya. Ngakhale kasakaniza wazitsulo izi muli pazipita 0.1%, kuchuluka ka niobium timapitiriza mphamvu ya chitsulo. Kukhazikitsidwa kutentha kwa superalloys niobium munali ndi zofunika ntchito zake ndege ndi roketi injini.

Niobium ntchito zipangizo zosiyanasiyana superconducting. kasakaniza wazitsulo izi superconducting, komanso munali titaniyamu ndi malata ankagwiritsa ntchito maginito ya superconducting wa Kujambula Zitsulo zofufuzira zidazo. Ntchito zina za niobium monga kuwotcherera, mafakitale nyukiliya, zamagetsi, Optics, numismatics, ndi zodzikongoletsera. Mu ntchito ziwiri zapitazi, kawopsedwe otsika ndi iridescence umatulutsa anodization kwambiri wolakalakika katundu. Niobium imatengedwa luso-yovuta amafotokozera.

maonekedwe

Niobium ndi yosalala, imvi, ductile, paramagnetic zitsulo mu gulu 5 tebulo zodziwitsa (onani gome), ndi kasinthidwe elekitironi mu zipolopolo yakumapeto kwenikweni, polumikizirana atypical gulu 5. (Izi zingaoneke pafupi ruthenium (44), rhodium (45), ndi palladium (46).

Ngakhale ena akuganiza kuti ndi thupi zokha kiyubiki dongosolo galasi ku mtheradi ziro kuti mfundo zake limatsogolera, mkulu-kusamvana miyezo ya patsogolo matenthedwe pamodzi ndi nkhwangwa atatu crystallographic awulule anisotropies amene ali malinga ndi dongosolo kiyubiki. [28] Choncho mudziwe zambiri ndipo anapeza mderali chikuyembekezeka.

Niobium amakhala superconductor pa kutentha cryogenic. Pa kuthamanga mumlengalenga, iwo ali apamwamba yovuta kutentha kwa superconductors elemental pa 9,2 K. Niobium ali wamkulu maginito malowedwe akuya mbali iliyonse. Komanso ndi mmodzi mwa anthu atatu elemental Mtundu II superconductors, pamodzi ndi vanadium ndi technetium. The katundu superconductive ali kwambiri amadalira chiyero cha zitsulo niobium.

Pamene ngoyera ndithu, ndi n'zochepa zofewa ndi ductile, koma zosafunika kupanga usagwiritse.

Zitsulo ali otsika adani mtanda chigawo cha neutrons matenthedwe; kotero ntchito m'mafakitale a nyukiliya komwe nyutironi nyumba mandala zimene amafuna.

makhalidwe Chemical

Zitsulo zimatengera pa kum'chitira bluish pamene mphepo firiji kwa nthawi yaitali. Ngakhale mfundo mkulu kusungunuka mu mawonekedwe elemental (2,468 ° C), ali osalimba poyerekeza miyala ina refractory. Komanso, ndi dzimbiri zosagwira, akusonyeza katundu superconductivity, ndi mitundu okusayidi zigawo dielectric.

Niobium ndi pang'ono zochepa electropositive ndi yaying'ono kwambiri kuposa zimene zinawonongedwa mu nthawi tebulo, zirconium, pamene izo pafupifupi zofanana kukula kwa maatomu ankawonjezereka tantalum, chifukwa cha lanthanide chidule. Chifukwa, niobium ndi mankhwala katundu ofanana kwambiri kwa anthu tantalum, lomwe limapezeka mwachindunji m'munsimu niobium mu tebulo nthawi. Ngakhale ake kukana dzimbiri si monga yabwino ya tantalum, mtengo wotsika ndi kupezeka wamkulu kupanga niobium wokongola ntchito oumirira, monga moŵa linings zomera mankhwala.



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