Niobium

Iipropati zeNiobium

Inombolo ye-atom 41
Inombolo yeCAS 7440-03-1
Ubunzima beatom 92.91
Indawo yokunyibilika 2 468 °C
Indawo yokubilisa 4 900 °C
Umthamo weathom 0.0180 nm3
Uxinzelelo kwi-20 °C 8.55g/cm³
Ubume beCrystal cubic egxile kumzimba
I-Lattice rhoqo 0.3294 [nm]
Ubuninzi kumhlaba womhlaba 20.0 [g/t]
Isantya sesandi 3480 m/s (kwi-rt)(intonga ebhityileyo)
Ukwandiswa kweThermal 7.3 µm/(m·K) (ku-25 °C)
I-Thermal conductivity 53.7W/(m·K)
Ukumelana nombane 152 nΩ·m (ku-20 °C)
Mohs ubulukhuni 6.0
Vickers ubulukhuni 870-1320Mpa
Ukuqina kweBrinell 1735-2450Mpa

I-Niobium, eyayisaziwa ngokuba yi-columbium, iyikhemikhali enesimboli i-Nb (eyayisakuba yi-Cb) kunye nenombolo ye-athomu 41. Yintsimbi ethambileyo, engwevu, ekristale, eguquguqukayo, ehlala ifumaneka kwiiminerali zepyrochlore kunye ne-columbite, ngenxa yoko igama langaphambili " Columbium".Igama layo livela kwiintsomi zamaGrike, ngakumbi uNiobe, owayeyintombi kaTantalus, igama elithi tantalum.Eli gama libonisa ukufana okukhulu phakathi kwezinto ezimbini kwiimpawu zazo zomzimba kunye neekhemikhali, nto leyo eyenza kube nzima ukwahlula.

Isazi samachiza esiNgesi uCharles Hatchett wabika into entsha efana ne-tantalum ngo-1801 kwaye wayibiza ngokuba yi-columbium.Ngomnyaka we-1809, i-chemist yeNgesi uWilliam Hyde Wollaston wagqiba ngokungalunganga ukuba i-tantalum kunye ne-columbium ziyafana.Usokhemisti waseJamani uHeinrich Rose wagqiba ngo-1846 ukuba i-tantalum ores iqulethe into yesibini, awayibiza ngokuba yi-niobium.Ngo-1864 no-1865, uluhlu lweziphumo zenzululwazi zacacisa ukuba i-niobium kunye ne-columbium yayiyinto efanayo (njengoko yahlulwe kwi-tantalum), kwaye ikhulu leminyaka omabini amagama asetyenziswa ngokungafaniyo.I-Niobium yamkelwa ngokusemthethweni njengegama le-element ngo-1949, kodwa igama elithi columbium lisasetyenziswa ngoku kwi-metallurgy e-United States.

Niobium

Kwada kwaba ngasekuqaleni kwenkulungwane yama-20 apho i-niobium yaqala ukusetyenziswa kwezorhwebo.IBrazil ngumvelisi ohamba phambili we-niobium kunye ne-ferronobium, i-alloy ye-60-70% ye-niobium enentsimbi.I-Niobium isetyenziswa kakhulu kwi-alloys, inxalenye enkulu kwintsimbi ekhethekileyo njengaleyo isetyenziswa kwimibhobho yegesi.Nangona ezi ngxube ziqulethe ubuninzi be-0.1%, ipesenti encinci ye-niobium iphakamisa amandla ensimbi.Ukuzinza kobushushu be-niobium-containing superalloys kubalulekile ekusebenziseni kwayo kwi-jet kunye ne-rocket injini.

I-Niobium isetyenziswa kwizinto ezahlukeneyo ze-superconducting.Ezi alloys superconducting, nazo zine-titanium kunye ne-tin, zisetyenziswa kakhulu kwiimagnethi ze-superconducting ze-MRI scanners.Ezinye izicelo ze-niobium ziquka ukuwelda, amashishini enyukliya, i-electronics, optics, numismatics, kunye nobucwebe.Kwizicelo ezimbini zokugqibela, ubutyhefu obuphantsi kunye ne-iridescence eveliswa yi-anodization zizinto ezinqweneleka kakhulu.I-Niobium ithathwa njengento ebalulekileyo yeteknoloji.

Iimpawu zomzimba

I-Niobium yintsimbi ekhazimlayo, engwevu, etyhutyhayo, yeparamagnetic kwiqela lesi-5 letafile yeperiodikhi (bona itheyibhile), kunye noqwalaselo lwe-electron kumaqokobhe angaphandle atypical kwiqela le-5. (Oku kunokubonwa ebumelwaneni be-ruthenium (44), i-rhodium (45), kunye ne-palladium (46).

Nangona kucingelwa ukuba umzimba-ozinziswe cubic crystal ulwakhiwo ukusuka kwiqanda ngokupheleleyo ukuya kwindawo yayo yokunyibilika, imilinganiselo high-resolution yokwandiswa thermal ecaleni ezintathu crystallographic amazembe atyhila anisotropies ezingangqinelaniyo nesakhiwo cubic.[28]Ke ngoko, uphando olongezelelweyo kunye nokufumanisa kule ndawo kulindeleke.

I-Niobium iba yi-superconductor kumaqondo okushisa e-cryogenic.Kuxinzelelo lwe-atmospheric, inobushushu obuphezulu obubaluleke kakhulu be-elemental superconductors kwi-9.2 K. I-Niobium inobunzulu bokungena kwamagnetic kuyo nayiphi na into.Ukongeza, yenye yezinto ezintathu eziphambili zohlobo lwe-II superconductors, kunye ne-vanadium kunye ne-technetium.Iimpawu ze-superconductive zixhomekeke kakhulu ekucocekeni kwensimbi ye-niobium.

Xa icocekile kakhulu, ithambile kwaye idumbe, kodwa ukungcola kwenza kube nzima.

Intsimbi ine-low capture cross-section ye-thermal neutron;ngaloo ndlela isetyenziswa kumashishini enyukliya apho izakhiwo zeneutron ezingafihliyo zifunwayo.

Iimpawu zeMichiza

Intsimbi ithatha i-bluish tinge xa ​​ibonakaliswe emoyeni kwindawo yokushisa ixesha elide.Ngaphandle kweqondo eliphezulu lokunyibilika kwi-elemental form (2,468 °C), inoxinano olusezantsi kunezinye iintsimbi ezichasayo.Ngaphaya koko, ayinyangeki kwi-corrosion, ibonisa iipropathi ze-superconductivity, kwaye yenza i-dielectric oxide layers.

I-Niobium ingaphantsi kancinci kwe-electropositive kwaye ixinene ngakumbi kuneyandulelayo kwitafile yeperiodikhi, i-zirconium, ngelixa iphantse yafana nobukhulu kwii-athom ze-tantalum ezinzima, ngenxa ye-lanthanide contraction.Ngenxa yoko, iipropathi zeekhemikhali ze-niobium zifana kakhulu nezo ze-tantalum, ezibonakala ngokuthe ngqo ngaphantsi kwe-niobium kwi-periodic table.Nangona uxhathiso ekudlekeni kwayo lungabangamelanga njengaleyo ye-tantalum, ixabiso eliphantsi kunye nokufumaneka okukhulu kwenza i-niobium ibe nomtsalane kwizicelo ezingafunwayo kangako, ezinje ngevat linings kwizityalo zemichiza.

Iimveliso ezishushu zeNiobium

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